Refugees from the Second Balkan War, Salonika 1912 (Stephané Passet, Albert Kahn Coll.).
These Muslim refugees were forced from their homes by the Second Balkan War. The photographer met them near Salonika (Thessalonika) six weeks before the end of the war. They hoped to find safety from the violence and atrocities of the war in the cosmopolitan port of Salonika, which was still under Ottoman control. However, Salonika did not prove to be a safe refuge. When the city surrendered to Greek forces on Nov 9, many Muslims including Ottoman officers, were killed and subjected to abuses despite the terms of the surrender pact between the Ottomans and Greeks on Nov 8. As a result, a new wave of refugees flooded into Istanbul. Among them were the mother and sister of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, who barely escaped with their lives.
Carinus…another of the later Roman Emperors who was a victim of unsubstantiated and scurrilous historiography generated via the supporters of his successor Dicoletian and later regimes, as embodied in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae